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عدد المساهمات : 108
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 32
|موضوع: CLY MINERALS 8th ديسمبر 2010, 12:41 am|| |
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths and other cations. Clays have structures similar to the micas and therefore form flat hexagonal sheets. Clay minerals are common weathering products (including weathering of feldspar) and low temperature hydrothermal alteration products. Clay minerals are very common in fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone and siltstone and in fine grained metamorphic slate and phyllite.
Clays are ultra fine grained (normally considered to be less than 2 micrometres in size on standard particle size classifications) and so require special analytical techniques. Standards include x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction methods, various spectroscopic methods such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and EDS or energy dispersive spectroscopy. These methods should always augment standard polarized light microscopy, a technique which is sometimes overlooked but often where fundamental occurrences or petrologic relationships are established.
Clays are commonly referred to as 1:1 or 2:1. Clays are fundamentally built of tetrahedral sheets and octahedral sheets, as described in the Structure section below. A 1:1 clay would consist of one tetrahedral sheet and one octahedral sheet, and examples would be kaolinite and serpentine. A 2:1 clay consists of an octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets, and examples are illite, smectite, attapulgite, and chlorite (although chlorite has an external octahedral sheet often referred to as "brucite").
Clay minerals include the following groups:
* Kaolin group which includes the minerals kaolinite, dickite, halloysite and nacrite.
o Some sources include the serpentine group due to structural similarities (Bailey 1980).
* Smectite group which includes dioctahedral smectites such as montmorillonite and nontronite and trioctahedral smectites for example saponite.
* Illite group which includes the clay-micas. Illite is the only common mineral.
* Chlorite group includes a wide variety of similar minerals with considerable chemical variation.
* Other 2:1 clay types exist such as sepiolite or attapulgite, clays with long water channels internal to their structure.
Mixed layer clay variations exist for most of the above groups. Ordering is described as random or regular ordering, and is further described by the term Reichweite, which is German for range or reach. Literature articles will refer to a R1 ordered illite-smectite, for example. This type would be ordered in an ISISIS fashion. R0 on the other hand describes random ordering, and other advanced ordering types are also found (R3, etc). Mixed layer clay minerals which are perfect R1 types often get their own names. R1 ordered chlorite-smectite is known as corrensite, R1 illite-smectite is rectorite. More information on clays and mixed layer identification can be found in Moore and Reynolds