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يقول تعالى : (أَنْـزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَسَالَتْ أَوْدِيَةٌ بِقَدَرِهَا فَاحْتَمَلَ السَّيْلُ زَبَدًا رَابِيًا وَمِمَّا يُوقِدُونَ عَلَيْهِ فِي النَّارِ ابْتِغَاءَ حِلْيَةٍ أَوْ مَتَاعٍ زَبَدٌ مِثْلُهُ كَذَلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ وَالْبَاطِلَ فَأَمَّا الزَّبَدُ فَيَذْهَبُ جُفَاءً وَأَمَّا مَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ فَيَمْكُثُ فِي الأَرْضِ كَذَلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الأَمْثَالَ)
قال تعالى : (أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ ثَمَرَاتٍ مُخْتَلِفاً أَلْوَانُهَا وَمِنْ الْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌ بِيضٌ وَحُمْرٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌ )
منتدى الجيولوجيين السودانيين منتدى سودانى يعنى بتقديم كل ماهو مفيد فى مجال الجيولوجيا بتخصصاتها المختلفة من مواد علمية دسمة وآخر الأخبار الجيولوجية التى تهم الجيولوجى عموماً والسودانى منهم على وجه الخصوص ،...
منتدى السيرة الذاتية جاءت فكرته كخدمة جديدة يقدمها المنتدى للأعضاء والشركات والمؤسسات والهيئات ذات الصلة بالجيولوجيا بكافة تخصصاتها ... يمكنكم كتابة السيرة الذاتية مباشرةً فى بوست جديد أو إرفاقها فى صيغة ال(doc)...
ترحب ادارة منتدي الجيولوجين السودانين بكل اعضائها املة ان يستفيدو من المواد العلميه الموجوده وان يفيدو ايضا فمرحبا بهم في الدار الجيولوجي السوداني
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عدد المساهمات : 231
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2010
العمر : 32
الموقع : khartoum north

مُساهمةموضوع: هندسة الطرق   27th يونيو 2010, 2:35 am

Excavate the area, allowing for the Geoblock®2 unit thickness and the required base depth (when
applicable). When working with in-situ soils that have poor permeability, provide adequate drainage from
the excavated area if the area has the potential to collect water. The in-situ soil should be relatively dry
and free from any standing water. Finish-grade the surface of the in-situ soil specifically when the
Geoblock®2 unit is to be installed without any additional base. Level and clear the area of obtrusive
objects such as rocks, pieces of wood, etc. to enable the Geoblock®2 units to interlock properly and
remain stationary after installation.
Geosynthetic Separation Layer
If required and/or specified by the project engineer, a geosynthetic layer shall be rolled out over the
prepared subgrade per manufacturers' recommendations.
Sub-Drainage Component
If required and/or specified by the project engineer, install the specified sub-drain and outlet according to
construction drawings. Ensure that a proper slope is maintained throughout the drainage system and that
the outlet is free from any obstructions preventing free drainage.
Required Base Preparation – Vegetated Systems
For vegetated systems, an engineered base, made from blending a clear-stone / crushed rock having an
AASHTO #5 or similar designation with a topsoil to form a homogeneous mixture, is recommended.
The aggregate portion shall have particles ranging in size from 9.5 to 25 mm (0.375 to 1.0 in). The
percentage void-space or the aggregate portion when compacted shall be at least 30%. Topsoil, equal to
but not exceeding 25% of the volume, shall be either added and blended to produce a homogenous
mixture prior to placement or washed into the in-place compacted aggregate. The in-place base shall be
compacted to a density that will produce a California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 7% minimum.
GEOBLOCK®2 POROUS PAVEMENT SYSTEM
APPLICATION & INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
COPYRIGHT 2005 - PRESTO PRODUCTS COMPANY PAGE 3 OF 5
CD-12 GB2 AIO-17-OCT-05 REV #2
Required Base Preparation – Non-Vegetated Systems
A recommended base for non-vegetated porous pavement systems shall be a well-graded aggregate with
a fine content less then 10%. The aggregate shall be compacted to a density that will produce a
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 7% minimum. After compaction, the surface shall be uniform with no
protrusions from larger aggregate particles.
Geoblock®2 Unit Installation
Orientation & Laying Pattern of Units
The Geoblock®2 units are typically placed with the square hole
to the ground. The user, however, shall determine which
surface is more suitable for the specific application.
Recommended laying pattern is illustrated in Figure 2.
Other laying patterns are generally not recommended. Bricklayer
Figure 2 Laying Pattern
Positioning of Units
Place the first row of Geoblock®2 units against a stationary edge when available. If the units are placed
between two perpendicular or near-perpendicular stationary edges (i.e. two parallel concrete curbs) allow
for potential thermal expansion of the Geoblock®2 units by keeping the units away from the stationary
edge. The separation distance can be calculated using the reference value given in the section titled
Thermal Expansion.
Slide the units together so that the interlocking tab joint is fully engaged as illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 3 The Interlocking Tab
Anchoring Units
The Geoblock®2 units can be fixed in-place to prevent the units from shifting during installation with wood
or metal stakes through the perimeter units, and/or, by placing thread-forming tapping screws through the
perimeter interlocking tabs. If staking is used to prevent movement during and after installation, the user
shall determine if stakes shall be temporary or permanent and select the appropriate stake material.
Figure 4 illustrates some of the anchoring possibilities.
Thermal Expansion
NOTE: The Geoblock®2 polyethylene stabilized with carbon black and has a relatively high rate of
thermal expansion. Joint separation occurring from large temperature fluctuations is normal. Therefore,
rejoining of the Geoblock®2 units should be considered normal construction practice.
The rate of thermal expansion is approximately 1.7% per 100 ºF (55 ºC). Based on the temperature of the
Geoblock®2 unit exposed to full sunlight for several hours, a temperature gain of 60-70 ºF (33-38 ºC) is
typical. As a result, a compensation of 1.375 in (34 mm) could be applied for each 10 ft (3 m) increment
of length.
GEOBLOCK®2 POROUS PAVEMENT SYSTEM
APPLICATION & INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
PAGE 4 OF 5 COPYRIGHT 2005 - PRESTO PRODUCTS COMPANY
CD-12 GB2 AIO-17-OCT-05 REV #2
Wood Stake (temporary)
Metal Stake (permanent)
Screw
Geoblock®2 Unit
Figure 4 Anchoring Possibilities
Infilling the Geoblock®2 Unit
Infill the Geoblock®2 units with infill material suitable for the intended application. Infilling should take
place immediately after the units are installed to minimize the potential of joint separation or upward
buckling caused by thermal expansion/contraction.
If the Geoblock®2 units are to remain unfilled, the inclusion of expansion joints may be recommended.
Infill Procedures for Vegetated Systems
Infill the Geoblock®2 units with a good quality, drainable topsoil. Use spreading methods that will leave
the cell infill uncompacted. Overfilling the cells is not recommended since vehicular loading will cause
undesirable compaction of the topsoil.
Infill Procedures for Non-Vegetated Systems
Infill the Geoblock®2 units with aggregate or other suitable infill material. If aggregate is used, ensure that
the aggregate particle size and gradation is suitable for the intended use.
Other infill material may include bark/wood chips, rubber chips, crushed shells, soils not intended to be
vegetated, etc. Spread the infill material uniformly over the units to a level even with the top of the cell
wall.
Finishing Procedures for Vegetated Systems
Seeding
Follow seeding, fertilizing, and watering procedures for turf establishment based on regional practices. If
base recommendations are not followed and a free-draining base is used, an increase in watering
frequency may be necessary for vegetation survivability.
Sod Application
Sod can be used for areas where immediate vegetation is desired. Young sod that is free from netting
materials is recommended. Mature sod with a more developed root system and sod with netting may be
difficult to press/cut into the Geoblock®2 cells. When sod is used:
• Sweep out the topsoil from the Geoblock®2 unit to allow room to seat the sod. Enough topsoil must
be removed so that the crown of the sod is recessed slightly below the top of the cell after pressing
the sod in place. If too much topsoil is removed, the bottom of the sod will not make contact with
the topsoil after it is pressed into the cell. Avoid removing too much topsoil.
• Place the sod per typical practices.
• Press the sod into the partially emptied cells using a roller or other suitable equipment.
Use recommended watering procedures to ensure healthy sod growth.
GEOBLOCK®2 POROUS PAVEMENT SYSTEM
APPLICATION & INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
COPYRIGHT 2005 - PRESTO PRODUCTS COMPANY PAGE 5 OF 5
CD-12 GB2 AIO-17-OCT-05 REV #2
Delineation
If used for lanes, delineation may be desirable to create greater visibility. Delineation methods can
include the following: in-ground or above-ground curbing, shrubbery or vegetation, perimeter lighting or
delineation markers, or other suitable systems.
Snow Removal
When snow removal is required, keep a metal edged plow blade from coming in contact with the surface
during plowing operations to avoid causing damage to the Geoblock units.
Warranty
Presto Products Company ("Presto") warrants each Presto Geoblock®2 unit which it ships to be free
from defects in materials and workmanship at the time of manufacture. Presto's exclusive liability under
this warranty or otherwise will be to furnish without charge to Presto's customer at the original f.o.b. point
a replacement for any section which proves to be defective under normal use and service during the 2-
year period which begins on the date of shipment by Presto. Presto reserves the right to inspect any
allegedly defective section in order to verify the defect and ascertain its cause.
This warranty does not cover defects attributable to causes or occurrences beyond Presto's control and
unrelated to the manufacturing process, including, but not limited to, abuse, misuse, mishandling,
neglect, improper storage, improper installation or improper application. Presto makes no other
warranties, express or implied, written or oral, including, but not limited to, any warranties or
merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose, in connection with the Presto Geoblock®2 Porous
Pavement System. In no event shall Presto be liable for any special, indirect, incidental or consequential
damages for the breach of any express or implied warranty or for any other reason, including
negligence, in connection with the Presto Geoblock®2 Porous Pavement System.
Disclaimer
This document has been prepared for the benefit of customers interested in the Geoblock®2 Porous
Pavement System. It was reviewed carefully prior to publication. Presto Products Company assumes no
liability and makes no guarantee or warranty as to its accuracy or completeness. Final determination of
the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, or for its manner of use, is the sole
responsibility of the user.
Project specifications take precedence over all manufacturers’ recommendations.
Geoblock®2 is a registered trademark of Presto Products Company.
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عدد المساهمات : 5
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2010
العمر : 32

مُساهمةموضوع: سؤال   2nd يوليو 2010, 11:47 pm

انا عندي كتب استشعار عن بعد لكن مش عارف ازاي ارفعها ممكن تبعتلي علي الايميل الكيفه
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
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